Population: 2.8 million
Area: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi)
Land boundaries: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km
Altitude: Average altitude is 1,580 m above sea level with the highest point Huiten Peak at Altai Tavan Bogd at 4,374 m above sea level and the lowest point being Huh Nuur Depression at 560 m altitudes.
Terrain: Mountain steppes in central and northern regions, vast semi-desert and desert plains, high mountains in the west, and Gobi Desert in the south
People: Khalkha Mongols (86%), over 20 smaller Mongolian ethnic groups, and Kazaks (6%)
Languages: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, Chinese. English is widely spoken in Ulaanbaatar.
Religions: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian, and Shamanism
Climate: Relatively dry with extreme continental temperatures. Average summer temperature +20” C, average winter temperature -23” C, average rainfall 200-220mm. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June, Summer from July through to September. /See forecast here/
Political system: Parliamentary republic. State Great Khural (Parliament), with 76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in July 2004. President elected for four years. The present President was elected in 2005. Prime Minister appointed by State Great Khural for four years.
Judicial system: The Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Aimag and capital city courts, soum district courts.
State structure: Mongolia is a unitary state and divided administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.
National currency: Tugrug (MNT), USD 1 equals approx. 1730 tugrugs as of Jan 2014. Economy About a third of GDP is generated by the mining industry based mainly on copper, gold, fluorspar, and coal. Other major sectors are animal husbandry, light industries, and tourism.
Public holidays: December 31- January 1 – New Year 3 days in January/February – Mongolian New Year (Tsagaan Sar), June 1 – Mother and Child day, July 11-13 – National Holiday (Naadam)
Time: Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Normal working hours: 09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00
Electric current: 220 volts/50 HZ
Weight and measures: Metric System
Visa arrangements: Visa shall be issued by Mongolia Embassies and Diplomatic Missions as well as Honorary consuls of Mongolia, or can be obtained at the airport at a cost of US$53 but must be accompanied by an invitation.